Copy and Paste

Anda bebas mengambil content blog ini, tapi mohon sebutkan alamat blog ini dalam tulisan Anda.

You are free to copy the content of my blog. However, please let your readers know my blog as your source.

Minggu, 03 Februari 2008

The Tipping Point 4

Chapter IV: The Power of Context (Part One) – Bernie Goetz and the Rise and Fall of New York City Crime

The crime rate in NYC 1984 was very high and still rising. At that cold winter night, in a dirty train Bernie Goets was approached by four black young men who later were proved criminals. The dirty train was full of excessive filth and graffiti, implying that there was no authority. Ready to face a fierce life, Bernie shot them all. Ironically, in the next days, he was treated by media as a hero and he also was free from a guilty verdict.

When NYC’s crime rate declined during the 1990’s, experts argued that it was because of the economy betterment and the aging population (even Levitt in Freakonomics argued that it was because of abortion beginning years before – Y Pan). However, while the the economy of NYC was stagnant and new immigrants made the argument of aging population not relevant, NYC’s crime rate still tipped down. Why? The reason lies on broken window theory.

A disciple of broken window theory, David Gunn was recruited as NYC subway director. He battled graffiti (1984 – 1990) and devised a cleaning up system. Dirty trains were never mixed with clean ones. He was so religious in his approach. Together with William Bretton (now LA Police Chief, and the only person ever holding both NYC and LA Police Chief – you can check it using Wikipedia, Y Pan), a disciple of broken window theory too, he battled fare beating. Bretton added the number of transit police in the platforms and in the trains to pursue fare beaters.

Challenged with an argument that he should pursue more serious crimes, Bretton insisted in this fare beating campaign. It revealed that the arrested beaters had more chance to be criminals, carrying guns, other weapons, and drugs. The following positive result made Bretton have more legitimacy to promote even more strict measure, although it required even more budget. Later, under NYC’s Mayor Giuliani administration, he conducted clean street campaign. The new rule was if you pee in the street, you are going to jail.

Simple measures, big effects!

If you think this article really deserves it, please make your donation by using PayPal.

Tidak ada komentar:


Live Traffic Feed